Linux to USB – Installation methods
Many people like to run/test a Linux system without touching/changing their hard drive. There are a lot of installations programs out there for both Linux and Windows. Most of them doesn’t offer persistence though. Very little is written about the fact that the “ordinary” installation program for installations to hard drive (in some cases) also can be used to install a Linux system to a USB stick. Using such an installation method will of course give you perfect persistence! Here are some examples.
1. ExTiX – based on Ubuntu
Installation with perfect persistence using the regular installation program Ubiquity. Read about how to do it (under B)).
2. exGENT – based on Gentoo Linux
Installation with perfect persistence using a script, which I call exGENT Installer. It is done in the same way as a hard drive installation. Read more…
3. SlackEX – based on Slackware
SlackEX has to be installed to a USB Stick. Read about how to do it. It can be done i Windows or Linux.
4. CruxEX – based on CRUX
Please read my INSTRUCTION for CruxEX. It can be done i Windows or Linux.
5. EXTON OpSuS – based on openSUSE
EXTON OpSuS has to be installed to a USB stick. It can be done i Windows or Linux. Read about how to do it.
6. ArchEX – based on Arch Linux
Please read my INSTRUCTION. All your system changes will be saved directly on the stick.
Kernel 4.9-x86_64-exton is my newest Slackware kernel. The stable kernel 4.9 was released by Kernel.org on December 11, 2016.
I have compiled a very useful (as I think) 64 bit kernel for Slackware Current (14.2) and/or all Slackware derivatives. For example Slax, Zenwalk and SlackEX. The kernel is compiled exactly the same way as Slackware’s latest kernel huge. “My” kernel 4.9-x86_64-exton has even more support for new hardware, etc. Kernel 4.9 is the latest kernel available from Kernel.org. Released 20161211.
What’s new in kernel 4.9?
If you want to install my kernel in your Slackware 64 bit system, do this:
1. Download linux-kernel-4.9-x86_64-exton.txz – md5sum
2. Install it with the command installpkg linux-kernel-4.9-x86_64-exton.txz
(The kernel is packed just like Slackware’s original kernels so that everything ends up in the right place)
4. If necessary, change your Grub Legacy/Grub2 configuration
5. If you have an Nvidia graphics card in your computer, you may need to look over your files in /etc/modprobe.d before restarting the computer. That is remove the “blacklisting” of Nouveau’s kernel module in the appropriate files blacklist.conf and nvidia-installer-disable-nouveau.conf. With “my” kernel functions the Nouveau “free” driver works just fine.
NOTE: When you run the command installpkg linux-kernel-4.9-x86_64-exton.txz vmlinuz will be “created” in /boot. If you have /boot/vmlinuz already that file will be overwritten. In case you want to switch back to your old kernel you should make a backup of /boot/vmlinuz before you run the just mentioned command.
Restart your computer and enjoy!
I have noted today how good AndEX Nougat 7.0 is running in VMware (Workstation-12.5.1-4542065). You can of course run the system (or install it) directly from the ISO file android_x86_64-nougat-7.0-gapps-exton-build-870mb-161107.iso.
I knew already from before that AndEX runs very well in VirtualBox.
Screenshot 1 – AndEX Nougat running in VMware
Screenshot 2 – AndEX Nougat running in VirtualBox
READ MORE about AndEX Nougat (Android-x86) 7.0…
Mex Linux is no longer based on Linux Mint. MeX Build 161030 is based only on Debian 8.6 and Ubuntu 16.04.1. I have replaced the original kernel with “my” special kernel 4.8.0-25-exton. All packages in MeX Linux have been upgraded to the latest version by 161030. This version of MeX uses Cinnamon 3.0.7. Linux Mint 18 also uses Cinnamon 3.0.7 as Desktop environment.
MORE MeX NEWS 161030
1. The MeX ISO is now a ISO-hybrid, which means that it can very easily be transferred (copied) to a USB pen drive.
2. Another big improvement is that MeX now can run from RAM. Use Boot alternative 5 (load to RAM). When the system has booted up you can eject the disc (DVD)/USB stick. You’ll need at least 2 GB RAM to run MeX that way. The ISO file is of only 1000 MB so MeX will run superfast from RAM!
3. The best thing with this new MeX build – Create your own installable Ubuntu Live DVD with Refracta tools (pre-installed)!
Important about Refracta
You can use the Refracta tools (pre-installed in MeX Build 161030) to create your own installable Ubuntu Live DVD once you have installed MeX to hard drive. I mean change everything and then create a whole new Ubuntu 16.04 or 16.10 live system. When you start Refracta it will look like this. You don’t even have to install MeX to hard drive before you can use the Refracta tools. If you have plenty of RAM you can create a new (your own!) Ubuntu system while running MeX from DVD or a USB stick. Please note that the whole Refracta process (creating your new ISO) will only take 5 – 10 min! You can then install VirtualBox in MeX so you can test run your own created new Ubuntu ISO. Or do it in Windows. Btw: You can do the whole thing in VirtualBox. I mean install MeX in VirtualBox, change everything, create a new 16.04.1/16.10 Ubuntu system using Refracta tools and transfer your new ISO to your server with FileZilla (sudo apt-get install filezilla).
Screenshot 1 – Refracta tools running
Screenshot 2 – Spotify running (install it with sudo apt-get install spotify-client)
Screenshot 3 – Cinnamon 3.0.7 Desktop with Samba
Screenshot 4 – Cinnamon 3.0.7 Desktop with Refracta2USB running
Screenshot 5 – Cinnamon 3.0.7 Desktop with SMPlayer running
Screenshot 6 – Google Chrome with Netflix running
Screenshot 7 – Boot screen
Kernel 4.8.1-x86_64-exton is my newest Slackware kernel. The stable kernel 4.8.1 was released on October 7, 2016.
I have compiled a very useful (as I think) 64 bit kernel for Slackware Current (14.2) and/or all Slackware derivatives. For example Slax, Zenwalk and SlackEX. The kernel is compiled exactly the same way as Slackware’s latest kernel huge. “My” kernel 4.8.1-x86_64-exton has even more support for new hardware, etc. Kernel 4.8.1 is the latest kernel available from Kernel.org. Released 20161007.
What’s new in kernel 4.8?
About DebEX Barebone, DebEX Gnome and DebEX KDE Linux 64 bit
All three systems/distributions are a based on Debian. DebEX KDE is based on Debian Jessie (Debian 8.6). DebEX Barebone and DebEX Gnome are based on Debian testing (Stretch) and Debian unstable (Sid). Xfce 4.12 (released 150228 after about three years work!) is used as Desktop environment in DebEX Barebone. Gnome 3.22 and Mate 1.16 are used in DebEX Gnome. KDE 4.14.2 and KDE Plasma Desktop 5:84 are used in DebEX KDE. DebEX Barebone Xfce4 and DebEX Gnome use my special kernel 4.8.0-21-exton. (Kernel 4.8). DebEX KDE uses my special kernel 4.8.0-18-exton. (Kernel 4.8-rc8). The system language is English (in all three versions of DebEX).
NEWS 161009 about DebEX Xfce4
A new version of DebEX Barebone with Xfce 4.12.1 and kernel 4.8.0-21-exton (equivalent to Kernel.org’s stable kernel 4.8) is ready. I have also installed Nvidia’s proprietary graphics driver 370.28 in this new version of DebEX Barebone. Read more about how to use it. All packages have been updated to the latest version as of October 9, 2016. DebEX Barebone is now based on Debian testing – stretch – (upcoming Debian 9) and Debian unstable – sid. I have replaced Google Chrome with Tor Browser – it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location, and it lets you access sites which are blocked. The size of the ISO file has therefore increased from 1460 MB to 1620 MB. Announcement about Xfce 4.12, released 150228: Today, after 2 years and 10 months of work, we are pleased to announce the release of the Xfce desktop 4.12, a new stable version that supersedes Xfce 4.10. This long period can only be explained by how awesome Xfce 4.10 was. But as all things, it needed some refreshing – and for that we saw lots of new contributors providing valuable feedback, features and bugfixes. As always, Xfce follows its steady pace of evolution without revolution that seems to match our users’ needs.
Runs from RAM
All three DebEX systems can run from RAM. Use Boot alternative 2 (Copy to RAM). When the system has booted up you can remove the disc (DVD) or USB stick. You’ll need at least 2 GB RAM to run DebEX from RAM. I.e. superfast! It’s absolutely the best way to enjoy a Linux live system. Especially if it is a “big” system and you have lots of RAM. (DebEX Barebone, Gnome and KDE ISO files are of 1620 MB, 1830 MB respectively 1510 MB).
Tor Browser running when I’m logged in as the ordinary user live. (You can’t run Tor Browser as root).
Using Samba to connect to my Windows computers
NEWS 161001 about DebEX KDE (Debian 8.6)
I have made a new version of DebEX KDE Live DVD. It replaces version 160604. It’s a pure Debian 8.6 system. I.e.: There are no Ubuntu or Kubuntu elements involved. DebEX KDE uses KDE 4.14.2 and KDE Plasma Desktop 5:84 as Desktop environment and kernel 4.8.0-18-exton (4.8-rc8). Kernel 4.8-rc8 is the latest available kernel by 161001. I have installed Nvidia’s proprietary graphics driver 370.28. Furthermore Google Chrome to make it possible to watch Netflix movies. I’ve also added SMPlayer – an alternative to Vlc. (SMPlayer is a free media player for Windows and Linux with built-in codecs that can play virtually all video and audio formats. It doesn’t need any external codecs. Just install SMPlayer and you’ll be able to play all formats without the hassle to find and install codec packs). All other installed packages have also been updated to the latest version of 161001. Study the full package list.
Pic 1 and Pic 2